Anti-Influenza Activity of C60 Fullerene Derivatives

Masaki Shoji, 1 Etsuhisa Takahashi, 2 Dai Hatakeyama, 1 Yuma Iwai, 1 Yuka Morita, 1 Riku Shirayama, 1 Noriko Echigo, 1 Hiroshi Kido, 2 Shigeo Nakamura, 3 Tadahiko Mashino, 4 Takeshi Okutani, 1 and Takashi Kuzuhara 1 , *

The H1N1 influenza A virus, which originated in swine, caused a global pandemic in 2009, and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has also caused epidemics in Southeast Asia in recent years. Thus, the threat from influenza A remains a serious global health issue, and novel drugs that target these viruses are highly desirable. Influenza A RNA polymerase consists of the PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, and the N-terminal domain of the PA subunit demonstrates endonuclease activity.

In a cell culture system, we found that several fullerene derivatives inhibit influenza A viral infection and the expression of influenza A nucleoprotein and nonstructural protein 1. These results indicate that fullerene derivatives are possible candidates for the development of novel anti-influenza drugs.

Inhibition the Allergic Response

Fullerene Nanomaterials Inhibit the Allergic Response

John J. Ryan, Henry R. Bateman, Alex Stover, Greg Gomez, Sarah K. Norton, Wei Zhao, Lawrence B. Schwartz, Robert Lenk and Christopher L. Kepley
J Immunol July 1, 2007, 179 (1) 665-672; DOI:

Protein microarray demonstrated that inhibition of mediator release involves profound reductions in the activation of signaling molecules involved in mediator release and oxidative stress. Follow-up studies demonstrated that the tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was dramatically inhibited in Ag-challenged cells first incubated with fullerenes. In addition, fullerene preincubation significantly inhibited IgE-induced elevation in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species levels. Furthermore, fullerenes prevented the in vivo release of histamine and drop in core body temperature in vivo using a MC-dependent model of anaphylaxis. These findings identify a new biological function for fullerenes and may represent a novel way to control MC-dependent diseases including asthma, inflammatory arthritis, heart disease, and multiple sclerosis.

Protects Nerves

Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents

L L Dugan 1, D M Turetsky, C Du, D Lobner, M Wheeler, C R Almli, C K Shen, T Y Luh, D W Choi, T S Lin

Two regioisomers with C3 or D3 symmetry of water-soluble carboxylic acid C60 derivatives, containing three malonic acid groups per molecule, were synthesized and found to be equipotent free radical scavengers in solution as assessed by EPR analysis. 

Prevents UV Damage

Fullerene-C60/liposome complex: Defensive effects against UVA-induced damages in skin structure, nucleus and collagen type I/IV fibrils, and the permeability into human skin tissue

Shinya Kato 1, Hisae Aoshima, Yasukazu Saitoh, Nobuhiko Miwa

 In the present study, Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model, rinsed out before each UVA-irradiation at 4 J/cm(2), and thereafter added again, followed by 19-cycle-repetition for 4 days (sum: 76 J/cm(2)). UVA-caused corneum scaling and disruption of epidermis layer were detected by scanning electron microscopy. 

Protects Nerves

Buckminsterfullerenol free radical scavengers reduce excitotoxic and apoptotic death of cultured cortical neurons

L L Dugan 1, J K Gabrielsen, S P Yu, T S Lin, D W Choi

Buckminsterfullerenols also reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. These results support the idea that oxidative stress contributes to both excitotoxic and apoptotic neuronal death, and furthermore suggest that fullerenols represent a novel type of biological anti-oxidant compound.