Free Radicals

Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases

Alugoju Phaniendra, Dinesh Babu Jestadi, and Latha Periyasamycorresponding author

 Free radicals can adversely affect various important classes of biological molecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, thereby altering the normal redox status leading to increased oxidative stress. The free radicals induced oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in several diseased conditions such as diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson’s disease-PD, Alzheimer’s disease-AD and Multiple sclerosis-MS), cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), respiratory diseases (asthma), cataract development, rheumatoid arthritis and in various cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, bladder cancers). 

Protects Nerves

Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents

L L Dugan 1, D M Turetsky, C Du, D Lobner, M Wheeler, C R Almli, C K Shen, T Y Luh, D W Choi, T S Lin

Two regioisomers with C3 or D3 symmetry of water-soluble carboxylic acid C60 derivatives, containing three malonic acid groups per molecule, were synthesized and found to be equipotent free radical scavengers in solution as assessed by EPR analysis. 

Prevents UV Damage

Fullerene-C60/liposome complex: Defensive effects against UVA-induced damages in skin structure, nucleus and collagen type I/IV fibrils, and the permeability into human skin tissue

Shinya Kato 1, Hisae Aoshima, Yasukazu Saitoh, Nobuhiko Miwa

 In the present study, Lpsm-Flln was administered on the surface of three-dimensional human skin tissue model, rinsed out before each UVA-irradiation at 4 J/cm(2), and thereafter added again, followed by 19-cycle-repetition for 4 days (sum: 76 J/cm(2)). UVA-caused corneum scaling and disruption of epidermis layer were detected by scanning electron microscopy. 

Protects Nerves

Buckminsterfullerenol free radical scavengers reduce excitotoxic and apoptotic death of cultured cortical neurons

L L Dugan 1, J K Gabrielsen, S P Yu, T S Lin, D W Choi

Buckminsterfullerenols also reduced neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. These results support the idea that oxidative stress contributes to both excitotoxic and apoptotic neuronal death, and furthermore suggest that fullerenols represent a novel type of biological anti-oxidant compound.

Inhibit Viruses

Using C60 fullerenes for photodynamic inactivation of mosquito iridescent viruses

Yu Rud 1, L Buchatskyy, Yu Prylutskyy, O Marchenko, A Senenko, Ch Schütze, U Ritter

This article describes the photodynamic inactivation of mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) Aedes flavescens in the presence of water-soluble C(60) fullerenes. It has been observed that the photodynamic inactivation of MIV for about 1 h reduces the infectious titre of the virus in large wax-moth larvae Galleria mellonella to 4.5 lg ID(50)/mL. The influence of the C(60) concentration on its anti-viral activity was tested in the concentration range from 1 to 0.001 mg/mL.