Free Radical Sponge

The applications of buckminsterfullerene C60 and derivatives in orthopaedic research

Qihai Liu 1, Quanjun Cui, Xudong Joshua Li, Li Jin

Abstract Buckminsterfullerene C60 and derivatives have been extensively explored in biomedical research due to their unique structure and unparalleled physicochemical properties. C60 is characterized as a “free radical sponge” with an anti-oxidant efficacy several hundred-fold higher than conventional anti-oxidants. Also, the C60 core has a strong electron-attracting ability and numerous functional compounds with widely different properties can be added to this fullerene cage. This review focused on the applications of C60 and derivatives in orthopaedic research, such as the treatment of cartilage degeneration, bone destruction, intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD), vertebral bone marrow disorder, radiculopathy, etc., as well as their toxicity in vitro and in vivo.

Improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice

A carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice

Kevin L. Quick a, Sameh S. Ali a, Robert Arch b, Chengjie Xiong c, David Wozniak d, Laura L. Dugan a,

Abstract
In lower organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, many genes identified as key regulators of aging are involved in
either detoxification of reactive oxygen species or the cellular response to oxidatively-damaged macromolecules. Transgenic mice have been
generated to study these genes in mammalian aging, but have not in general exhibited the expected lifespan extension or beneficial behavioral
effects, possibly reflecting compensatory changes during development. We administered a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide
dismutase (SOD) mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age. Chronic treatment not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but significantly extended lifespan. Treated mice also exhibited improved performance on the Morris water maze learning and memory task. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration that an administered antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration not only increases lifespan, but rescues age-related cognitive impairment in mammals. SOD mimetics with such characteristics may provide unique complements to genetic strategies to study the contribution of oxidative processes to nervous system aging.
© 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

The prolongation of the lifespan

The prolongation of the lifespan of rats by repeated oral administration of [60]fullerene

Tarek Baati 1, Fanchon Bourasset, Najla Gharbi, Leila Njim, Manef Abderrabba, Abdelhamid Kerkeni, Henri Szwarc, Fathi Moussa

Abstract

Countless studies showed that [60]fullerene (C(60)) and derivatives could have many potential biomedical applications. However, while several independent research groups showed that C(60) has no acute or sub-acute toxicity in various experimental models, more than 25 years after its discovery the in vivo fate and the chronic effects of this fullerene remain unknown. If the potential of C(60) and derivatives in the biomedical field have to be fulfilled these issues must be addressed. Here we show that oral administration of C(60) dissolved in olive oil (0.8 mg/ml) at reiterated doses (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) to rats not only does not entail chronic toxicity but it almost doubles their lifespan.