Free Radicals

Free Radicals: Properties, Sources, Targets, and Their Implication in Various Diseases

Alugoju Phaniendra, Dinesh Babu Jestadi, and Latha Periyasamycorresponding author

 Free radicals can adversely affect various important classes of biological molecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, thereby altering the normal redox status leading to increased oxidative stress. The free radicals induced oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in several diseased conditions such as diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson’s disease-PD, Alzheimer’s disease-AD and Multiple sclerosis-MS), cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), respiratory diseases (asthma), cataract development, rheumatoid arthritis and in various cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, bladder cancers). 


Fullerenes as Anti-Aging Antioxidants

Yuliana P Galvan, Igor Alperovich 1, Petr Zolotukhin, Evgenia Prazdnova, Maria Mazanko, Anna Belanova, Vladimir Chistyakov

Here we review fullerenes biological effects focusing on their antioxidant and anti-ageing action. A scope of various poisonous and healing properties reported in literature for fullerene and its derivatives is analyzed. 


C60 fullerene as synergistic agent in tumor-inhibitory Doxorubicin treatment

Svitlana Prylutska 1, Iryna Grynyuk, Olga Matyshevska, Yuriy Prylutskyy, Maxim Evstigneev, Peter Scharff, Uwe Ritter

 Dox (total dose 2.5 mg/kg) combined with C60 fullerene (total dose 25 mg/kg) in tumor-bearing animals resulted in tumor growth inhibition, prolongation of life, metastasis inhibition, and increased number of apoptotic tumor cells and was more effective than the corresponding course of Dox treatment alone. C60 fullerene demonstrated a protective effect against superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase inhibition induced by Dox-dependent oxidative insult in the liver and heart.


Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents

Laura L. Dugan, Dorothy M. Turetsky, Cheng Du, Doug Lobner, Mark Wheeler, C. Robert Almli, Clifton K.-F. Shen, Tien-Yau Luh, Dennis W. Choi, and Tien-Sung Lin

Carboxyfullerenes were able to block neuronal death in both of these apoptotic injuries. Thus, our data support the emerging concept that free radicals contribute to neuronal death in excitotoxic insults as well as injuries that result in apoptosis….Carboxyfullerenes effectively reduced neuronal death resulting from exposure to glutamate receptor agonists, NMDA or AMPA. C60 derivatives are the only class of antioxidant compounds that we have worked with to date that can fully block intense, rapidly triggered, NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in our cortical neuronal cultures.


The effect of squalane-dissolved fullerene-C60 on adipogenesis-accompanied oxidative stress and macrophage activation in a preadipocyte-monocyte co-culture system

Li Xiao 1, Hisae Aoshima, Yasukazu Saitoh, Nobuhiko Miwa

 Our results suggest that Sql-fullerene might be explored as a potential medicine for the treatment of metabolic syndrome or other obesity-related disorders.