Antioxidant

Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

Palanisamy Arulselvan, 1 , * Masoumeh Tangestani Fard, 2 Woan Sean Tan, 1 Sivapragasam Gothai, 1 Sharida Fakurazi, 1 Mohd Esa Norhaizan, 3 and S. Suresh Kumar 4

Abstract

Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases.

Antioxidant

Biological Effects of C 60 Fullerene Revealed with Bacterial Biosensor-Toxic or Rather Antioxidant?

Sergey Emelyantsev 1, Evgeniya Prazdnova 2, Vladimir Chistyakov 3, Igor Alperovich 4

Abstract

Nanoparticles have been attracting growing interest for both their antioxidant and toxic effects. Their exact action on cells strongly depends on many factors, including experimental conditions, preparation, and solvents used, which have contributed to the confusion regarding their safety and possible health benefits. …The ability of C60 to penetrate through biological membranes, conduct protons, and interact with free radicals is likely responsible for its protective effect detected for E. coli. Thus, fullerene can be considered as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, worth further researching as a prospective component of novel medications.

Disease Prevention

Comparative computational study of interaction of C60-fullerene and tris-malonyl-C60-fullerene isomers with lipid bilayer: relation to their antioxidant effect

Marine E Bozdaganyan 1, Philipp S Orekhov 1, Alexey K Shaytan 1, Konstantin V Shaitan 1

Abstract

Oxidative stress induced by excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in the etiology of many human diseases. It has been reported that fullerenes and some of their derivatives-carboxyfullerenes-exhibits a strong free radical scavenging capacity.

Anti-Aging

Carboxyfullerenes as neuroprotective agents

Laura L. Dugan, Dorothy M. Turetsky, Cheng Du, Doug Lobner, Mark Wheeler, C. Robert Almli, Clifton K.-F. Shen, Tien-Yau Luh, Dennis W. Choi, and Tien-Sung Lin

Carboxyfullerenes were able to block neuronal death in both of these apoptotic injuries. Thus, our data support the emerging concept that free radicals contribute to neuronal death in excitotoxic insults as well as injuries that result in apoptosis….Carboxyfullerenes effectively reduced neuronal death resulting from exposure to glutamate receptor agonists, NMDA or AMPA. C60 derivatives are the only class of antioxidant compounds that we have worked with to date that can fully block intense, rapidly triggered, NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in our cortical neuronal cultures.

Acne Reduction

Inhibition of sebum production and Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity by fullerenol, a novel polyhydroxylated fullerene: potential as a therapeutic reagent for acne

Shigeki Inui 1, Hisae Aoshima, Masayuki Ito, Ken Kobuko, Satoshi Itami

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a major role in acne formation; this suggests that oxygen-radical scavengers could be potential therapeutic agents. Fullerenol C60(OH)44, a recently developed polyhydroxylated fullerene, is a spherical carbon molecule that has many hydroxyl groups capable of potent radical-scavenging activity. We have investigated its inhibitory effects in vitro on sebum production in hamster sebocytes and in Propionibacterium acnes lipase activity. Sebum production was significantly reduced by 1.5 microM of fullerenol in cells that had been irradiated with 10 mJ/cm2 UVB, although it was not altered in the non-irradiated cells, indicating that fullerene is a sebum suppressor for sebocytes under oxidative stress, such as that induced by UVB. It was also found that fullerenol has inhibitory activity against P. acnes lipase. These results suggest that fullerenol could be a beneficial skin care reagent for controlling acne vulgaris by suppressing sebum in the inflammatory response and by reducing P. acnes lipase activity.