Toluene Plus Carbon 60 Makes Purple

Purple color of Toluene

Pure, unadulterated C60 is BLACK. C60 is only ever “purple” (or “magenta”) when it has interacted with solvents such as Toluene. In other cases, it may be yellow, green, pink or brown, depending on which solvent is used (see Fig. 1). The color change in C60 in various solutions is the result of “solvation shells” which are formed between the solute (C60) and solvent when they interact. This interaction changes the electrophysical properties of the C60 molecules, causing them to aggregate (i.e., cluster) into crystal formations of various shapes and sizes. It is these crystal formations of aggregated C60 that reflect specific wavelengths of light and which result in “color”. Since the electrophysical properties of the C60 are permanently altered from having interacted with a solvent, C60 remains in an aggregated, crystallized state, even after the solvent has been vaporized off. Additionally, some solvent also remains behind, being both chemically bonded to and physically trapped within the C60 molecules. Hence, re-dissolving the solid C60 “powder” that is left behind after this process into an oil will still produce a color change. It is evidence of crystallized, aggregated C60 from solvent extraction methods.

How Carbon 60 is Made

Evolution of Species During Thermal Submlimation of C60

L. Moro, P. Lazzeri, V. Micheli CMBM, Centro Materiali e Biofisica Medica Povo- Trento, 1-38050, Italy

To study the nature of the residue and possible methods for reduce or eliminate it, is relevant to many topics of the fullerene research. For example, there is a fundamental interest for the interactions between fullerenes and solvents and the stability of possible compounds or adducts. In addition the presence of solvent molecules trapped in the fullerene crystals and of solid phases of C60 wih solvents may affect the measured basic properties of C60.

How Carbon 60 is Made

Fullerene for Medicinal Purposes, A Purity Criterion towards Regulatory Considerations

Sanaz Keykhosravi 1, Ivo B. Rietveld 2 , Diana Couto 1, Josep Lluis Tamarit 3, Maria Barrio 3, René Céolin 1 and Fathi Moussa 1,*

Here we have evaluated several analytical tools to verify the purity of commercially available C60 samples. Our data clearly show that differential scanning calorimetry is the best candidate to establish a purity
criterion based on the sc-fcc transition of a C60 sample.

Here we have evaluated several analytical tools to verify the purity of commercially available C60 samples. Our data clearly show that differential scanning calorimetry is the best candidate to establish a purity
criterion based on the sc-fcc transition of a C60 sample


How Carbon 60 is Made

Solvent Molecules in Crystalline C60

Eugueni V. Skokan,*,† Victor I. Privalov,‡ Igor V. Arkhangel’skii,† Vladimir Ya. Davydov,† and Nadezhda B.Tamm† Chemistry Department, Moscow State UniVersity, Moscow 119899, Russia, and KurnakoV Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr.31, Moscow 117907, Russia

Extraction and chromatographic separation of individual
fullerenes are the necessary stages of the fullerene synthesis.1
In both stages, fullerenes are dissolved in a suitable solvent
(usually aromatic) or in a solvent mixture. Fullerite (crystalline
fullerene) is obtained after crystallization from the corresponding
solution. Crystals prepared by such a technique are used as the
starting material for further investigations. The resulting product
is usually washed with nonaromatic solvent (ether, hexane) and
further annealed in a vacuum or purified by sublimation to
remove solvent molecules from fullerite. However, it was shown
that residual solvent remains in solid C60 even after vacuum
treatment of the samples of C60 at elevated temperatures.


The results of the study of the series of C60 samples prepared
by various methods allowed us to draw the following conclusions.
(1) The molecules of solvent are not incorporated into the
crystal lattice of C60, but rather are adsorbed at the interfaces
of microcrystals.
(2) “Sintering” of the microcrystals upon heating is assumed
to be responsible for entrapping some of the solvent molecules
in the sample. This may be the reason solvents cannot be
completely removed by vacuum heating of samples of C60 and
only sublimation makes it possible to obtain virtually solventfree
(3) Disappearance of the orientational phase transition in DSC
curves of mechanically treated samples was observed as earlier,
with the nature of this effect being explained in terms of the
space defects in the crystals of C60.


Prevent Muscle Fatigue

C60 fullerene as promising therapeutic agent for correcting and preventing skeletal muscle fatigue

Yurij I. Prylutskyy1 , Inna V. Vereshchaka2 , Andriy V. Maznychenko2*, Nataliya V. Bulgakova2 , Olga O. Gonchar3 , Olena A. Kyzyma1,4, Uwe Ritter5 , Peter Scharff5 , Tomasz Tomiak6 , Dmytro M. Nozdrenko1 , Iryna V. Mishchenko7 and Alexander I. Kostyukov2

Background: Bioactive soluble carbon nanostructures, such as the C60 fullerene can bond with up to six electrons, thus serving by a powerful scavenger of reactive oxygen species similarly to many natural antioxidants, widely used
to decrease the muscle fatigue effects. The aim of the study is to define action of the pristine e C60 fullerene aqueous
colloid solution (C60FAS), on the post-fatigue recovering of m. triceps surae in anaesthetized rats.
Conclusions: C60FAS leads to reduction in the recovery time of the muscle contraction force and to increase in the time of active muscle functioning before appearance of steady fatigue effects. Therefore, it is possible that C60FAS affects the prooxidant-antioxidant muscle tissue homeostasis, subsequently increasing muscle endurance