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Clean Carbon 60 is BLACK

Toluene+Carbon 60=Purple

In this experiment, the color of the C60 solution in both the toluene and xylene solvents turned purple, and it was a darker purple in the TCE (Trichloroethylene), as seen in Figure 2.

The same purple color was seen in the toluene and xylene solvents possibly due to the similar structure of these two solvents consisting of a benzene ring and methyl group.

Therefore, because the solute-solvent interactions might be different, the solvent induces different optical characteristics of the C60 solutions….

Citation Information – Open Chemistry, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1198-1212, eISSN 2391-5420
DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2019-0117.

© 2019 Teguh Endah Saraswati et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License. BY 4.0
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C-60 in olive oil causes light-dependent toxicity

C60 in olive oil causes light-dependent toxicity and does not extend lifespan in mice

Kristopher J. Grohn & Brandon S. Moyer & Danique C. Wortel & Cheyanne M. Fisher & Ellie Lumen & Anthony H. Bianchi & Kathleen Kelly & Paul S. Campbell & Douglas E. Hagrman & Roger G. Bagg & James Clement & Aaron J. Wolfe & Andrea Basso & Cristina Nicoletti & Giovanni Lai & Mauro Provinciali & Marco Malavolta & Kelsey J. Moody

We additionally find that pristine C60-OO causes no acute toxicity in a rodent model but does form toxic species that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in mice in under 2 weeks when exposed to light levels consistent with
ambient light. Intraperitoneal injections of C60-OO did not affect the lifespan of CB6F1 female mice.

Finally, we conduct a lifespan and health span study in males and females C57BL/6 J mice comparing oral treatment with pristine C60-EVOO and EVOO alone versus untreated controls. We failed to observe significant
lifespan and health span benefits of C60-EVOO or EVOO supplementation compared to untreated controls, both starting the treatment in adult or old age.

Our results call into question the biological benefit of C60-OO in aging.

Anti-Influenza

Anti-Influenza Activity of C60 Fullerene Derivatives

Masaki Shoji, 1 Etsuhisa Takahashi, 2 Dai Hatakeyama, 1 Yuma Iwai, 1 Yuka Morita, 1 Riku Shirayama, 1 Noriko Echigo, 1 Hiroshi Kido, 2 Shigeo Nakamura, 3 Tadahiko Mashino, 4 Takeshi Okutani, 1 and Takashi Kuzuhara 1 , *

The H1N1 influenza A virus, which originated in swine, caused a global pandemic in 2009, and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has also caused epidemics in Southeast Asia in recent years. Thus, the threat from influenza A remains a serious global health issue, and novel drugs that target these viruses are highly desirable. Influenza A RNA polymerase consists of the PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, and the N-terminal domain of the PA subunit demonstrates endonuclease activity.

In a cell culture system, we found that several fullerene derivatives inhibit influenza A viral infection and the expression of influenza A nucleoprotein and nonstructural protein 1. These results indicate that fullerene derivatives are possible candidates for the development of novel anti-influenza drugs.

Free Radicals Antioxidants

Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health

Lien Ai Pham-Huy,1 Hua He,2 and Chuong Pham-Huy3

Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. 

Diminish Muscle Fatigue

C 60 Fullerenes Diminish Muscle Fatigue in Rats Comparable to N-acetylcysteine or β-Alanine

Inna V Vereshchaka 1, Nataliya V Bulgakova 2, Andriy V Maznychenko 2, Olga O Gonchar 3, Yuriy I Prylutskyy 4, Uwe Ritter 5, Waldemar Moska 1, Tomasz Tomiak 1, Dmytro M Nozdrenko 4, Iryna V Mishchenko 6, Alexander I Kostyukov 2 , Olena A. Kyzyma1,4, Uwe Ritter5 , Peter Scharff5 , Tomasz Tomiak6 , Dmytro M. Nozdrenko1 , Iryna V. Mishchenko7 and Alexander I. Kostyukov2

The aim of this study is to detect the effects of C60 fullerenes, which possess pronounced antioxidant properties, in comparison with the actions of the known exogenous antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and β-Alanine in terms of exercise tolerance and contractile property changes of the m. triceps surae (TS) during development of the muscle fatigue in rats. 

Oral C60FAS administration clearly demonstrated an action on skeletal muscle fatigue development similar to the effects of i.p. injections of the exogenous antioxidants NAC or β-Alanine. This creates opportunities to oral use of C60FAS as a potential therapeutic agent. Due to the membranotropic activity of C60 fullerenes, non-toxic C60FAS has a more pronounced effect on the prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis of muscle tissues in rats.

Olive Oil vs. Sunflower Oil

C60 fullerene as synergistic agent in tumor-inhibitory Doxorubicin treatment

Effect of olive and sunflower seed oil on the adult skin barrier: implications for neonatal skin care

Simon G Danby 1, Tareq AlEnezi, Amani Sultan, Tina Lavender, John Chittock, Kirsty Brown, Michael J Cork

The first cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm twice daily for 5 weeks. The second cohort applied six drops of olive oil to one forearm and six drops of sunflower seed oil to the other twice daily for 4 weeks. The effect of the treatments was evaluated by determining stratum corneum integrity and cohesion, intercorneocyte cohesion, moisturization, skin-surface pH, and erythema. Topical application of olive oil for 4 weeks caused a significant reduction in stratum corneum integrity and induced mild erythema in volunteers with and without a history of atopic dermatitis. Sunflower seed oil preserved stratum corneum integrity, did not cause erythema, and improved hydration in the same volunteers. In contrast to sunflower seed oil, topical treatment with olive oil significantly damages the skin barrier, and therefore has the potential to promote the development of, and exacerbate existing, atopic dermatitis. The use of olive oil for the treatment of dry skin and infant massage should therefore be discouraged. 

Assembly of C 60 Fullerene in Water and Toluene

Redispersion and Self-Assembly of C 60 Fullerene in Water and Toluene

Antonio Cid 1 2, Óscar A Moldes 2, Mário S Diniz 1, Benito Rodríguez-González 3, Juan C Mejuto 2

This work aims at assessing the influence of two different solvents, bidistilled water and toluene, on dispersions of carbon-based engineered nanomaterials, namely, fullerenes, and their self-assembly behavior…. Aggregates obtained in toluene showed a well-formed crystal structure. When using water, the obtained aggregates were amorphous and showed a no well-defined shape. Their sizes ranged between 20 and 40 nm for nanosized structures and between 0.4 and 4.8 μm for micron-sized self-aggregates.