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Clean Carbon 60 is BLACK

Toluene+Carbon 60=Purple

In this experiment, the color of the C60 solution in both the toluene and xylene solvents turned purple, and it was a darker purple in the TCE (Trichloroethylene), as seen in Figure 2.

The same purple color was seen in the toluene and xylene solvents possibly due to the similar structure of these two solvents consisting of a benzene ring and methyl group.

Therefore, because the solute-solvent interactions might be different, the solvent induces different optical characteristics of the C60 solutions….

Citation Information – Open Chemistry, Volume 17, Issue 1, Pages 1198-1212, eISSN 2391-5420
DOIhttps://doi.org/10.1515/chem-2019-0117.

© 2019 Teguh Endah Saraswati et al., published by De Gruyter. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Public License. BY 4.0
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C-60 in olive oil causes light-dependent toxicity

C60 in olive oil causes light-dependent toxicity and does not extend lifespan in mice

Kristopher J. Grohn & Brandon S. Moyer & Danique C. Wortel & Cheyanne M. Fisher & Ellie Lumen & Anthony H. Bianchi & Kathleen Kelly & Paul S. Campbell & Douglas E. Hagrman & Roger G. Bagg & James Clement & Aaron J. Wolfe & Andrea Basso & Cristina Nicoletti & Giovanni Lai & Mauro Provinciali & Marco Malavolta & Kelsey J. Moody

We additionally find that pristine C60-OO causes no acute toxicity in a rodent model but does form toxic species that can cause significant morbidity and mortality in mice in under 2 weeks when exposed to light levels consistent with
ambient light. Intraperitoneal injections of C60-OO did not affect the lifespan of CB6F1 female mice.

Finally, we conduct a lifespan and health span study in males and females C57BL/6 J mice comparing oral treatment with pristine C60-EVOO and EVOO alone versus untreated controls. We failed to observe significant
lifespan and health span benefits of C60-EVOO or EVOO supplementation compared to untreated controls, both starting the treatment in adult or old age.

Our results call into question the biological benefit of C60-OO in aging.

Anti-Influenza

Anti-Influenza Activity of C60 Fullerene Derivatives

Masaki Shoji, 1 Etsuhisa Takahashi, 2 Dai Hatakeyama, 1 Yuma Iwai, 1 Yuka Morita, 1 Riku Shirayama, 1 Noriko Echigo, 1 Hiroshi Kido, 2 Shigeo Nakamura, 3 Tadahiko Mashino, 4 Takeshi Okutani, 1 and Takashi Kuzuhara 1 , *

The H1N1 influenza A virus, which originated in swine, caused a global pandemic in 2009, and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has also caused epidemics in Southeast Asia in recent years. Thus, the threat from influenza A remains a serious global health issue, and novel drugs that target these viruses are highly desirable. Influenza A RNA polymerase consists of the PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, and the N-terminal domain of the PA subunit demonstrates endonuclease activity.

In a cell culture system, we found that several fullerene derivatives inhibit influenza A viral infection and the expression of influenza A nucleoprotein and nonstructural protein 1. These results indicate that fullerene derivatives are possible candidates for the development of novel anti-influenza drugs.

Free Radicals Antioxidants

Free Radicals, Antioxidants in Disease and Health

Lien Ai Pham-Huy,1 Hua He,2 and Chuong Pham-Huy3

Free radicals and oxidants play a dual role as both toxic and beneficial compounds, since they can be either harmful or helpful to the body. They are produced either from normal cell metabolisms in situ or from external sources (pollution, cigarette smoke, radiation, medication). When an overload of free radicals cannot gradually be destroyed, their accumulation in the body generates a phenomenon called oxidative stress. This process plays a major part in the development of chronic and degenerative illness such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, aging, cataract, rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. 

Protective Effects of Fullerenol Nano Particles

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF FULLERENOL NANO PARTICLES ON COLON CANCER DEVELOPMENT IN DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE RAT MODEL

MARTINA PERŠE, RADE INJAC a , ALEKSANDAR DJORDJEVIC b , BORUTŠTRUKELJ a , ANTON CERAR

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers world-wide, with highest incidence rates in western countries. In recent years, much effort has been dedicated in search for natural or pharmacological preventive agents, which would block or attenuate CRC process. In search for new pharmacological agent, the effects of fullerenol C60 (OH)24 nano particles (FNP) on liver oxidative status and promotion or progression phase of colorectal carcinogenesis in dimethylhydrazine-induced rat model of CRC were investigated. Our results demonstrate that FNP effectively inhibited formation of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci, which are regarded as early histopathological lesions in the pathogenesis of CRC. FNP treatment also improved activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver.

Studies on anti-tumor and antimetastatic activities of fullerenol in a mouse breast cancer model

Studies on anti-tumor and antimetastatic activitiesof fullerenol in a mouse breast cancer model

Fang Jiao a,b , Ying Liu a , Ying Qu a , Wei Li a,b , Guoqiang Zhou a,b , Cuicui Ge a,b ,Yufeng Li a,b , Baoyun Sun a , Chunying Chen a

The purpose was to examine the anti-tumor and antimetastatic activities of fullerenol andtheirrelatedmechanisms.ThirtyEMT-6tumor-bearingmicewereinjectedintraperitoneallywith 0.1 ml saline or 0.1 ml saline containing fullerenol C 60 (OH) 20 (0.08 and 0.4 mg/ml) dailyfor 16 days. Using tumor tissues, we investigated imbalances in the oxidative defense sys-tem and the expression of several angiogenesis factors. C 60 (OH) 20 exhibits anti-tumor andantimetastatic activities in EMT-6 breast cancer metastasis model. Treatment withC 60 (OH)20 was found to modulate oxidative stress significantly. The expression of severalangiogenesis factors was reduced in tumor tissues after treatment with fullerenol.

Diminish Muscle Fatigue

C 60 Fullerenes Diminish Muscle Fatigue in Rats Comparable to N-acetylcysteine or β-Alanine

Inna V Vereshchaka 1, Nataliya V Bulgakova 2, Andriy V Maznychenko 2, Olga O Gonchar 3, Yuriy I Prylutskyy 4, Uwe Ritter 5, Waldemar Moska 1, Tomasz Tomiak 1, Dmytro M Nozdrenko 4, Iryna V Mishchenko 6, Alexander I Kostyukov 2 , Olena A. Kyzyma1,4, Uwe Ritter5 , Peter Scharff5 , Tomasz Tomiak6 , Dmytro M. Nozdrenko1 , Iryna V. Mishchenko7 and Alexander I. Kostyukov2

The aim of this study is to detect the effects of C60 fullerenes, which possess pronounced antioxidant properties, in comparison with the actions of the known exogenous antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and β-Alanine in terms of exercise tolerance and contractile property changes of the m. triceps surae (TS) during development of the muscle fatigue in rats. 

Oral C60FAS administration clearly demonstrated an action on skeletal muscle fatigue development similar to the effects of i.p. injections of the exogenous antioxidants NAC or β-Alanine. This creates opportunities to oral use of C60FAS as a potential therapeutic agent. Due to the membranotropic activity of C60 fullerenes, non-toxic C60FAS has a more pronounced effect on the prooxidant-antioxidant homeostasis of muscle tissues in rats.